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從業人士談為什么UX設計師應該具備心理學知識

發布時間:2021-06-01 09:13:51 Tags:,,

從業人士談為什么UX設計師應該具備心理學知識

原作者:Mike Moran 譯者:Willow Wu

從門把手到咖啡杯再到戰斗機座艙,用戶體驗存在于生活的各個角落。每個人造物品的設計目的不是為了提升消費者的使用幸福感就是單純為了方便制造商生產(要是你在使用某樣東西的時候覺得困惑或者煩躁,那應該是后者)。

那么游戲世界中的用戶體驗是什么概念呢?

面對電子游戲這種復雜的產品時,我們的大腦會瘋狂運轉,消化很多信息。在游戲開發中,心理學知識對于創造引人入勝且令人難忘的游戲至關重要。

在本文中,我們會概述心理學對于創造良好游戲用戶體驗的重要性。會涉及到的話題包括游戲測試、在游戲中應用可供性的重要性、如何使用心理學來創造易用性和粘性,以及“格式塔理論”對游戲設計的影響等等。

為什么做設計總是要關注用戶

站在用戶的角度去做設計,產品的實用性會大大提升,而且會更受歡迎。

一個典型的例子就是二戰期間的戰斗機。這些飛行員精疲力竭,承受著巨大的壓力,他們經常會出現人為操作失誤,可能會意外地按錯飛機儀表盤上的按鈕。不幸的是,不同飛機之間儀表盤的設計也不一樣。這意味著,飛行員每換一架新飛機就要重新學習操作系統。這樣一來,按錯按鈕的概率就更高了。因此,人們需要一套標準化的駕駛艙設計模板,提升飛行員的用戶體驗。

這種思維方式同樣也可以應用到游戲上,確保游戲的設計是圍繞著用戶體驗來做的。所以,了解用戶的心理,你就能做出更貼合用戶需求的決策。

還有就是要記住一點:不存在所謂的“中性設計”。我們設計的每一個東西多少都會對用戶的使用產生影響。這確實是一個值得思考的道德問題,尤其是那些為了提升留存率,但可能引發上癮行為或者懲罰離線時間過長的機制。

游戲測試的重要性

每個用戶都是不同的獨立個體,而我們的觀點、想法是基于我們的經驗、經歷和價值取向而形成的。當你在為不同類型的用戶設計游戲時,我們不可能事先知道每個用戶對游戲體驗的感受。擁有多元化開發團隊的重要性就體現在這了。

Cookie Jam(from pocketgamer.biz)

Cookie Jam(from pocketgamer.biz)

這也是為什么游戲設計師需要提前對游戲進行測試——你可以通過測試得知真實玩家對游戲的真實感受。這樣一來設計游戲就變成了一種循環式的迭代工作:設計師創造出一款游戲,然后測試看看游戲是否呈現出了他們所想要的效果。如果參與測試的用戶給出了消極的反饋,那么游戲就得“返廠維修”。修改完成后接著再測試,由此循環下去。

設計團隊可能會設定一些明確的目標,他們需要迭代游戲玩法的各個部分(從對話到視覺效果到機制等等)才能實現這些目標。

說到游戲測試,這里有個重要的小技巧分享給你:游戲開發者不要跟測試者待在一個房間里。這不僅會讓測試者感到有點尷尬(甚至是有種“被恐嚇”的感覺),還會影響到測試結果。

有開發人員在場的話,測試人員會更仔細地去研究游戲,但如果他們是自己在家玩的話會是一種更隨意的狀態(這可能是一種對付出心血的開發者表達禮貌的行為)。為了準確測試有多少玩家會快速放棄游戲,游戲測試者應該在完全放松狀態下玩游戲。

在游戲中的“可供性”

可供性(affordance)是指一個特定的物體為人的行為提供的可能性。換句話說就是一個物體明確“告訴你”它的作用是什么。

就比如說一個咖啡杯,你把熱熱的飲料裝在里邊,握住旁邊的把手,把杯子舉到嘴邊。把手可以幫你避免在拿杯子的時候燙到手指。

在電子游戲中,玩家并不是在使用真實存在的物品。因此,這里的可供性就是所謂的“認知可供性”(cognitive affordances)——引導用戶在游戲中使用某個物品。

當設計師往游戲里添加元素的時候,他們希望用戶在看到這個物品的時候就能領悟到它的作用和使用方法。

就比如說,馬里奧系列游戲中的敵人。庫巴有鋒利的尖刺,這就明確跟玩家表示不要跳到它的背上,不然你會受傷。事實上,《超級馬里奧兄弟》前期的一些關卡很多都起到了教程作用,游戲的每一個細節,從音樂到畫面到對話,都在幫助玩家理解游戲的互動方式。

再舉一個關于可供性的例子:游戲中的HUD(heads-up display),也就是界面中的狀態欄,可以讓玩家了解重要信息。尤其是當玩家離開了一段時間再回來時,這些元素就能起到非常好的提示作用。

如何設置挑戰

游戲設計的關鍵在于思考你要給玩家提供什么樣的體驗。

你想怎么挑戰玩家?你想考驗他們的戰斗技能嗎?還是他們的合作能力?或是解謎的能力?這些挑戰所對應的玩法是完全不同的。

一旦確定了自己要提供的體驗,你就可以開始考慮你的目標用戶了,你得思考思考怎么跟他們建立聯系,畢竟每個人看待游戲的方式都不太一樣——這就是游戲測試為什么如此重要的第二個原因,你無法預測人們會如何跟你的游戲互動,自己猜測的話肯定會有盲區。這就是為什么你需要一個多元化的測試團隊,這樣能促使你去思考如何減少潛在的障礙,盡量考慮周全,讓所有人都能夠享受游戲。

易用性和吸引力

為了擁有良好的用戶體驗,吸引力(engageability)和易用性(usability)是必不可少的兩個特性。

易用性意味著玩家能夠理解游戲的系統和目標。就比如說,游戲中有制作系統,玩家能夠明白怎么跟這個系統交互。

吸引力是指游戲如何吸引玩家的情感和興趣。一個吸引力強的游戲會讓玩家進入忘我狀態,全身心沉浸在游戲中。沒有吸引力的游戲并不意味著不能玩。玩家明白怎么跟游戲的這些特色交互,但他們或許會覺得無聊。一個游戲除了“可以玩”,還必須做到“很好玩”。但是一個引人入勝的游戲同時也可能是“玩不了的”——玩家可能是被游戲的故事或者設定所吸引,但是玩的時候發現操作很困難,最終只能沮喪地放棄了。

即使是“硬核玩家”也不例外,他們可能已經玩過很多游戲了,但是你游戲中的某個部分可能還是會把他們搞得一頭霧水。雖說很多人都在夸這個游戲,但如果游戲很難玩、讓人充滿了挫敗感,不少玩家最終還是會選擇放棄的。

所以,你的游戲怎樣才能兼具易用性和吸引力呢?易用性是圍繞著人類處理信息的方式而設計的,也就是感知、記憶和注意力。吸引力聚焦的是如何讓人們在意這個游戲——最終歸結為勝任感、自主性和歸屬感。

易用性的實現:感知、記憶&注意力

在塑造易用性時,我們需要了解人類的大腦以及它是如何處理信息,從而在電子游戲中解決問題的。這就要歸結到大腦的三大功能:感知、記憶和注意力。

在生活中,每個玩家都有自己獨特的經歷,因此他們對游戲的感知也是不盡相同的,意識到這一點很關鍵。

玩游戲是一個學習的過程,所以你得認真思考玩家會怎么學習、記住游戲中的重要部分。還有,他們離開游戲一段時間后再回來時還能不能想起這些東西。

如果你的玩家沒有注意游戲中的某些東西,這個信息就不會被輸入到他們的大腦中,自然也就不會記住。這就是為什么游戲中重要的信息都需要加以突出,吸引玩家的注意力。

如果你在設計游戲的時候牢記這三方面,你就可以確保玩家能夠理解、記住關于游戲玩法的關鍵信息?!侗局埂肪褪且粋€很好的例子。為了激勵玩家學習建造,游戲把玩家塞到一個沒有出口的洞穴中,擺脫困境的唯一方法就是建造樓梯。他們是在行動中學習。而且最重要的是,這是有意義的。他們現在很想學習怎么建造,因為他們得出去。當人們全神貫注于正在做的事情時,成功學習并記住的可能性會更大。

吸引力的塑造:勝任感、自主感和歸屬感

說到吸引力,我們需要著眼于內在動機。換句話說就是,人們為什么會迷上你的游戲,并且不斷回到游戲中?

這可以歸結到三個主要方面:

-勝任感:在游戲中獲得進展,擁有掌控權。但這并不意味著游戲應該做得比較簡單,它還是應該具備一定的挑戰性。但是,如果玩家失敗了,他們應該能夠知道原因是什么,避免下次重蹈覆轍。
-自主感:玩家想要成為行動的主宰者,也就是說,玩家可以在游戲中自主做決策。這會促使他們更加關注自己行動的結果。
-歸屬感:玩家會跟其他人產生共鳴。注意,非多人聯機游戲也適用!在單人游戲中,跟虛構的角色產生共鳴也能滿足玩家的歸屬感需求(只要角色塑造得好、有趣就行)。

為了讓玩家能夠沉浸在游戲中,這些方面都得表現出來。如果玩家沒有感受到勝任感,覺得在游戲中無法取得進展,他們可能會放棄游戲;如果玩家覺得他們沒有決策自由,無法真正地影響劇情走向,他們可能會放棄游戲。如果玩家無法在游戲中跟其他人產生共鳴,同樣也可能會放棄游戲。

所以,想要保持玩家粘性,關鍵就在于讓他們感受到勝任感、自由和歸屬感。

格式塔理論是如何影響游戲設計的

“格式塔”(gestalt)這個術語指的是一個不等于并且大于部分之和的整體。在格式塔心理學發展過程中,心理學家認為人類感知的是模式和結構,而不是單個的元素。

那這個理論是如何關聯到游戲設計上的呢?重點在于,它會影響我們感知事物的方式,并在事物與事物之間建立關聯。人類的大腦傾向于把那些彼此距離很近的物品歸置到一組。同樣,具有相似屬性的物品也會被認為是同一類的。在設計技能樹的時候,這些理論是非常關鍵的參考信息。

就比如說《孤島驚魂》中的菜單設計,通過將圖標緊密地排列在一起,并通過形狀暗示進階流程方向,玩家就能更輕松地理解技能發展過程。

玩家永遠是第一位

如果你能更好地理解大腦是如何工作,了解感知、注意力和記憶所起的作用,還有動機和游戲心流,這些知識能幫助你設計出更好的游戲。

從心理學角度看待游戲設計將改變你的思維方式,并幫助你預測潛在的問題。這會有助于你理解為什么玩家會做出這些決定,以及你該怎么做才能讓他們獲得更好的游戲體驗。

在設計游戲的時候一定要記住玩家的體驗永遠是第一位的,我們強烈建議你盡量多做游戲測試。我知道這也是一筆開銷,但這絕對是非常值得的投資。這是你獲取所需信息的唯一途徑,只有測試才能讓你知道真人對游戲的感受以及真實的互動效果。

本文由游戲邦編譯,轉載請注明來源,或咨詢微信zhengjintiao

From door handles to coffee mugs to fighter jet cockpits, User Experience shows up in everything you interact with.

Every human-made object has been designed, based on either what will be easier for the user or what was easiest for the manufacturer. (Whenever using something feels frustrating or confusing, you can be sure it was the latter!)

But what about the concept of User Experience in the world of video games?

When our brains process something as complex as a video game, there’s a lot going on. Understanding the role that psychology plays within the science of game development is crucial to creating memorable and engaging games.

In this article, we’ll summarize the importance of understanding psychology while crafting the user experience of a video game.

We’ll touch on subjects such as the importance of play-testing, employing affordance in your games, how to use psychology to create usability and engageability, and the role of the “Gestalt” theory in game design.

Why Design Should Always Focus on The User

When the design is focused on the perspective of the user, a product becomes much more practical, desirable, and useful.

A great example of this dates back to fighter pilots during WWII. Exhausted and under pressure, these pilots had a high rate of human error and were at risk of accidentally pushing the wrong button on the dashboard of their aircraft.

Unfortunately for them, dashboards were not consistent between aircraft. This meant the pilots had to learn a new set-up every time they switched planes.

This made it even more likely that they would press the wrong button. Therefore, standardized cockpits needed to be developed which would improve the user experience for these pilots.

This type of thinking can also be applied to video games, ensuring that the design of the game is centered around the user experience. Therefore, by understanding the psychology of the user, you’ll be better able to make design decisions tailored to their needs.

It’s also important to remember that there is no such thing as a neutral design. Everything we design will influence people to use it in one way or another. This is an important ethical issue to consider, especially when certain retention mechanics can create addictive behaviors and punish disengagement.

The Importance of Play-Testing

Every user is different and our perspective depends on our experience, our history and what is important to us. When designing video games for different types of users, it’s not possible to know in advance what every user will bring to the experience. That’s why it’s essential to have a diverse team of designers with different backgrounds.

That’s also why video game designers “play test” their games. This tests how the game is perceived by the people who will actually be playing it. With this method designing a game becomes a cycle of action and iteration.

Designers create a game, then test it to see if it is accomplishing what they wanted to achieve. If insight from audience testing finds the game lacking, it’s back to the drawing board to refine with more information. Then the game is tested again, and the cycle continues.

The design team may have certain goals that they are trying to achieve within the game. However, they will need to iterate on all aspects of the gameplay, from dialogue to visuals to mechanics and more, in order to achieve those goals.

When it comes to play testing, heres an important tip: The developer shouldn’t be in the room with the play testers. Not only will it make the players feel somewhat awkward and intimidated, it will also make the test less accurate.

Players tend to make more effort to understand a game when the developer is watching than they would if they were playing it at home (perhaps out of politeness to the person who has put their heart and soul into crafting the game). To get an accurate measure of how many players would simply give up on a game, play testers should be free to play the game by themselves.

Employing “Affordance” In Games

Affordance refers to when a particular object defines its possible uses. In other words, when an object clearly “tells you” how it can or should be used.

Take a coffee mug for example. It’s pretty clear that the hot beverage goes in the cup, and the handle is used to lift it towards your mouth. The handle is an affordance that allows you to use the mug without burning your fingers.

In video games, users aren’t manipulating physical objects. Therefore, the affordances are what’s know as “cognitive affordances” — signifiers that give the user an idea of how to use something in the game.

When game designers add elements into their game, they want users to be able to understand what that element is for and how it can be used, simply by looking at it.

A great example of this? The enemies in the Mario video game series. Bowser has sharp spikes, which make it clear to the player that they will hurt themselves if they try to jump on his back. In fact, many of the initial levels of Super Mario Bros teach players about how the rest of the game works.

Every detail of a game, from music to visuals to dialogue, helps the player understand how to interact with it.

Another example of affordance? The HUD, or “heads-up display” is an on-screen status bar that conveys important information to the audience. This can be helpful especially when players are coming back after not playing the game for a while — as the HUD can give them important reminders.

Deciding How to Challenge Your Users

The key to designing a game is thinking about what experiences you want to offer your users.

How do you want to challenge your players?

Do you want to challenge their combat skills? Or their ability to coordinate with others? Or their ability to perceive things and solve puzzles? Each of these challenges will involve a different style of gameplay.

Once you define what experience you want to offer, you can then think about the people who you want to play your game. After all, different players will see things in their own way, so you’ll need to think about how to connect with them.

This is another reason why play-testing is so important. You can’t anticipate how people will interact with your game and you’re likely to have blind spots when trying to predict this. So, that’s why it’s so important to play-test with a diverse mix of players.

This allows you to think about alleviating any potential barriers and making your game as accessible as possible, so everyone can enjoy it.

Usability & Engageability: Both Essential For Good UX

Two essential components that need to be present within a game in order to have good UX — Usability and Engageability..

It means that players understand the objectives and the systems involved.

For example, if there is crafting within the game, players grasp how to interact with it.

Engageability is about how much the game captivates the emotions and interest of the players.

A game with good engageability will put the player in a “flow-like” state: completely focused and immersed in the game.

Games can be usable, without necessarily being engageable. Players may understand how to use all the features in your game, yet might still find it boring. A game needs more than just usability, it needs to be engaging.

Games can also be engaging, but not useable. The player may be intrigued by the storyline or premise of the game, but find the controls impossible to master or the in-game mechanics difficult to use. They may want to play, but they are likely to give up in frustration.

This is true even for so-called “hardcore” gamers. They may have a lot of experience playing games, but they might not understand how to interact with a particular part of your game. Even if the game has a lot of hype, many will give up on it if it is confusing and frustrating.

So, how do you create both usability and engageability within your game? Usability centers around the ways humans process information; namely their perception, memory and attention. Engageability focuses on what makes people care about the game and comes down to competence, autonomy and relatedness.

Creating Usability: Perception, Memory and Attention

When it comes to determining usability, we need to think about the human brain and how it processes information to figure something out in a video game.

This comes down to three main aspects of brain function: Perception, Memory and Attention.

Every one of your players will have their own unique experience of the world — and therefore a unique perception of your game.

It’s crucial to remember that everyone playing your game will see it differently.

Playing a video game is a learning experience, so it’s important to think about how your players will learn and remember important parts of the game.

(And whether they will still remember how to play when coming back to a game after a while!)

If your players don’t pay attention to something in the game — their brain won’t encode it and they will not remember it.

That’s why important information should stand out in the game and capture their attention.

If you keep these three aspects in mind when designing games, you can make sure your players will understand and remember the important aspects of gameplay.

Fortnite is a great example. To encourage players to learn how to build, they place them in a cave with no exit. The only way to get out of the situation is to build stairs.

“If you place players in a situation where they have context,” explains Celia Hodent, “it means they can DO the things you teach them. They are learning by doing. And on top of that, it’s meaningful. They care about it right now, because they need to get out.”

When people are paying attention to what they are doing and they care about it, they will be more likely to learn it and remember it.

Creating Engageability: Competence, Autonomy and Relatedness

When it comes to engageability, we need to look at the principles of intrinsic motivation. In other words, what makes people hooked on your game and keeps them coming back?

This comes down to three main aspects:

Competence is the feeling of progressing in the game and being in control.

This doesn’t mean the game has to be easy. It should still be challenging.

However, if the player dies, they should understand WHY they died so that they can improve their performance next time.

Autonomy is the need for the player to feel ownership over their own behavior.

This means that players feel like they are making their own decisions in the game.

This makes them more invested in the outcome of their actions.

Relatedness is the need to feel connected to others.

Note: this doesn’t just apply to multi-player online games!

Even relationships with fictional characters in single-players games can satisfy the need for relatedness. (The characters just have to be well-written and interesting!)

These aspects all need to be present for players to be engaged with a game.

If players don’t feel competent and don’t feel like they can progress, they are more likely to give up.

If they don’t feel like they are able to make their own decisions and meaningfully shape the narrative, they are more likely to give up.

If they don’t feel connected to others within the game, they are more likely to give up.

So, to keep your players engaged, the key is to make them feel competent, free and connected.

How Gestalt Principle Influences Design

The term “gestalt” refers to an organized whole that is perceived as more than the sum of its parts. In the Gestalt psychology movement, psychologists argued that humans perceived patterns and configurations, rather than individual components.

How does the theory of gestalt relate to game design? It’s important because it affects the way we perceive things and make connections between what we see.

The human brain tends to group together items that are shown in proximity to each other. Also, objects with similar attributes are perceived as belonging together. This is important to remember when designing skill trees, inventory icons, objects and other in-game elements.

For example, the design of a menu in the game Far Cry. By placing icons closer to each other and giving them a shape that infers movement to the right, the progression of skills becomes much easier to follow.

Players Should Always Come First

If you have a better understanding of how the brain works and the main flaws of perception, attention and memory, as well as motivation and game flow, this basic knowledge will help you design better games.

Approaching game design from a psychological perspective will change your mindset and will help you anticipate potential problems. It will help you comprehend why players make the decisions they do, and how you can help them get the most out of your game.

The most important thing to keep in mind when designing a game is the experience of the player. We advocate so strongly for lots and lots of play testing.

Paying for play-testing is an expense, but it is absolutely a worthwhile investment. It’s the only way to get the information you need, so you can understand how real people will perceive and interact with your game.

(source:user wise )


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